Revolution & Civil Conflict

Hafez, Mohammed. "Political Exclusion in the Muslim World" and "Repression and Rebellion." In Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World, , 27–55, 71–91. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.

Zakaria, Fareed. "Islam, Democracy, and Constitutional Liberalism," Political Science Quarterly 119, no1 (Spring 2004.).

Skocpol, Theda. "Rentier State and Shi'a Islam in the Iranian Revolution." In Social Revolutions in the Modern World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 240–258.

Abrahamian, Ervand. "I am Not a Speck of Dirt, I am a Retired Teacher."In The People Reloaded: The Green Movement and the Struggle for Iran's Future, edited by Nader Hashemi and Danny Postel, 60–70. Brooklyn, NY: Melville House, 2010.

Lynch, Marc. "The Arab Uprisings," "Building Toward Revolution," and "Afterword." In The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East New York: Public Affairs, 2012

Goldstone, Jack A. "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies." Foreign Affairs 90, no. 3 (2011): 8–16.

Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences Between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya." In The New Arab Revolt. Council on Foreign Relations, 2011.

Stepan, Alfred. "Tunisia's Transition and the Twin Tolerations," Journal of Democracy 23, no. 2 (2012): 89–103.

Parker, Ned. "The Iraq We Left Behind: Welcome to the World's Next Failed State," Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations, 2012.

Fearon, James D. "Syria's Civil War." In The Political Science of Syria's Civil War, edited by March Lynch, 13–17. Project on Middle East Political Science Briefings, 2013.

Baczko, Adam, Gilles Dorronsoro, and Arthur Quesnay. "Building a Syrian State in a Time of Civil War," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, (April 2013): 1–30.

Wehrey, Frederic. "What's Behind Libya's Spiraling Violence?" Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, (2014).

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